Friday, March 10, 2006

Roadside Bombs, Explosive Devices and Tactics





120mm mortar shells, artillery shells, aircraft bombs used in many roadside bombs. Detonated by a remote control device.

Artillery shell hidden in plaster made to look like a concrete block.

Explosives packed in a wall. The wall is then replastered. The explosives are detonated by remote control or by booby trap.
SEP 1941- As Soviet forces withdraw from Kiev, Ukraine, they hide explosives in government buildings and buildings that will most likely be occupied by invading German forces. The Soviets wait for some time to go by, so the enemy can get situated, and detonate the explosives by radio remote control 400 kilometers away.

Anti-tank mine encased in concrete and command detonated by remote control.


Example of a Pseudo Masonry Land Mine from "Camouflage and Deception for Urban Warfare"

Explosives thrown down from overpasses.
Explosives thrown in front of approaching vehicles from the side of the road.
Explosives placed in potholes and covered with dirt.
Shaped charges (hollow charges) used in roadside bombs.
Explosives with cinder blocks or piles of sand behind them to direct the force of the blast.
Explosives swung down on ropes. The ropes have been measured to ensure that they hit the vehicles windshield.
Grenade with the pin pulled placed in a small glass. The glass is driven over and broken detonating the grenade.
Explosives covered up with rocks.
Explosives placed in bags (garbage bags, sacks, sandbags, etc.) and left by the side of the road. The bags are often held down by rocks and covered over with sand or dirt for concealment.
Explosives hidden inside dead animals and placed by the side of the road.
Bait device or obstacle used to slow down or stop a vehicle or convoy.
Explosives hidden inside culverts.
One landmine placed on top of another. If a bomb disposal team removes the top mine, they trigger the bottom mine.
Real bomb placed near decoy bomb. When the bomb disposal team goes near the decoy to disarm it, the real bomb, hidden nearby, detonates.
Rail track used as the command wire for a bomb or series of bombs.
"Daisy Chain"- Two or more explosive devices wired together so that a single signal detonates all of them together.


Small bottles of gas and nails added to some bombs. A sugar and gasoline mixture may be added to produce a napalm like substance.
Light beams from burglar alarms or safety mechanisms on garage doors used to trigger some explosives. When an enemy vehicle crosses the light beam, the explosive detonates.
Hidden wires supposedly cannot be disrupted unlike cell phone and light beam detonation methods.
Nails, ball bearings, bolts, glass, and bullets added to some explosives.
Roadside bombs and suicide bombs often followed by RPG and small arms fire.
Land mines planted at night outside or near an enemy base. Mortar attack on base lures enemy soldiers into the minefield.
Building or house rigged with explosives. Booby trapped to detonate when entered.
Surface-to-Air missile warhead used as a landmine.
Wireless doorbells used to electronically detonate roadside bombs.
Garage door opener used to detonate roadside bombs.
Explosives placed under girders.
Car alarms used to detonate roadside bombs.
Explosives placed on highway medians.
Keyless entry systems used to detonate explosives.
Cell phone and pagers used to detonate explosives.
Explosives placed in manholes.
FRS and GMRS two way radios used to detonate explosives.
Explosives placed in tunnels that are burrowed under roads.
Plant fake bombs in plain view to see the enemy response and gather intelligence on enemy security precautions and bomb disposal methods.
Explosives tied to telephone poles.
A broken down car on a highway is used to scare the enemy into believing it is a car bomb. The convoy stops before it reaches the potential danger. A bomb or series of bombs are planted where the convoy is expected to stop or slow down.
A clearly visible decoy bomb is planted in the road to stop or slow down an enemy convoy. Real bombs are planted in an area the convoy is expected to stop or slow down.
Combat disruptive enemy radio signals with radar guns and microwave receivers.
Detonate roadside bombs while sitting inside a vehicle a safe distance away (mobile platform).

Members of the Basque ETA making explosives.


Hide bombs in loose rubble, and then stack human feces on top.

Use snipers to lure enemies towards bombs. The bombs should be hidden in a place where the enemy soldiers are likely to take cover.

Bury bombs deep beneath the ground so that mine sweeping vehicles have a harder time finding them.

Deliberately target mine sweeping vehicles.

Plant bombs in sewers and culverts. The concrete lining can potentially direct most of the force of the explosion upward.


Program a washing machine timer to set off a bomb at a later time.

Turn an old toy walkie-talkie into a trigger for a bomb 100 yards away.

Wireless doorbells used to remotely detonate explosives.

Car alarms used to remotely detonate explosives.

Car bombs can be booby trapped with anti-handing devices.

Artillery and mortar shells can be made into mines and hidden in tree braches overhanging a trail. The mines are then command detonated.

Bombings can be followed up by small arms fire.

Plastic explosives placed on a conventional military bomb, mortar round, or artillery shell. Lit by a simple fuse.

So called "Catapult IED's" are launched by a metal sling and activated by a triggering device. Chemical shaped charge explosive between 10-50kg (22-110lbs). Kela explosive device.

Water tanks filled with explosives. The cylindrical shape of the water tank directs most of the blast up to the target. These types of bombs are intended to be exploded directly beneath the vehicle. They are often called a "Mega IED" or a "Belly Bomb".

In 2002, HAMAS forces used a bomb consisting of 100kg of C-4 CTP plastic explosives in an old water tank. Activated by remote control.









Vehicles

Pickup truck with a mortar mounted in the bed. (Used by the IRA and FARC)

"Technical"- A jeep, truck or pickup truck with a heavy weapon (machinegun, recoiless rifle, etc.) mounted to it. Common in Africa and Asia.








Van with a hole cut in the roof and a mortar inside. (Used by the IRA)

Pickup truck with a multiple rocket launcher in the bed. (Used by Hezbollah, HAMAS, Islamic Jihad and guerrillas in Iraq)



Car, truck, or van used as a mobile platform for a sniper team. (Used by the IRA)









Captured tanks and armored vehicles.

In guerrilla warfare, the use of armored vehicles may not only be necessary, but detrimental depending on the circumstances. However, if the fighting takes on a more conventional aspect or the enemy lacks air power and perhaps anti-tank weaponry, armored vehicles may be used.


A T-55 tank captured by LTTE (Tamil Tiger) forces.


A T-55 tank captured by Hezbollah forces in Lebanon.




French made Char B1 bis tanks that were captured by German forces are retaken by French Resistance forces in Paris 1944.







A German Jagdpanzer 38 Hetzer captured by Czechoslovakian resistance forces during the 1945 Prague uprising.











Homemade tanks and armored vehicles tanks.
In guerrilla warfare, the use of armored vehicles may not only be necessary, but detrimental depending on the circumstances. However, if the fighting takes on a more conventional aspect or the enemy lacks air power and perhaps anti-tank weaponry, armored vehicles may be used.

NI armored tractor (also called the "Odessa tank")
Built by Soviet factory workers in Odessa in 1941 during the German siege of Odessa, Ukraine. Utilized the STZ-5 agricultural tractor with armor plating added.


Bob Semple armored tractor
Caterpillar D8 tractors with corrugated iron sheets added. Built by New Zealand during the Second World War out of the fear of a potential Japanese invasion and New Zealands lack of war material during the time. 








The V3 improvised armored vehicle created by the Danish Resistance group Holger Danske during World War 2. 




So called "Narco tanks" or improvised armored vehicles used by drug cartels.

Unfinished cartel vehicles with armor still being added.





Completed cartel armored vehicle








Croatian improvised armored vehicle "Masjan" used during the Yugoslavian civil war.


The Kubuś improvised armored was built in secret and used by Polish resistance forces of the Home Army during the 1944 Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation forces.



Bison concrete armored vehicles or mobile pillboxes. Basically trucks with concrete armor used during World War 2 by the British Home Guard and the Royal Air Force to guard airfields.



Armadillo improvised armored vehicles used a regular truck chassis with a wooden firing compartment protected by a layer of gravel! The drivers cab was protected by steel plates. These vehicles were also used by the British Home Guard and Royal Air Force during the Second World War.



During the 1988-1998 conflict in the Bougainville area of Papua New Guinea, the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) created an improvised armored vehicle from a tractor and scrap metal.



04 JUN 2004- A man driving a bulldozer with improvised armor plating goes on a rampage in a small town in Colorado, destroying several buildings including the town hall and mayors office, before committing suicide.

1997- Separatists from Venice occupy Piazza San Marco with an improvised armored vehicle.


Gun Trucks
Originally heavy military transport trucks with additional armor and weapons added used to escort convoys through dangerous areas. Used extensively by US military forces during the Vietnam War. Added armor plating, sandbags, or even M113 armored personnel carriers with the engines, tracks, wheels, etc. removed.







So called gun jeeps or jeeps with armor plating added. Used by US forces during World War 2 and the Vietnam War often in conjunction with gun trucks.









Possible Materials for Improvised Armored Vehicle:
Steel plates of at least one inch in thickness?
So called "run flat" tires?
Bullet proof glass or clear protective material for windows such as layers of Lexan?
Instead of bullet proof glass a metal covering can be placed over most of the window area with small view slits for driver and gunners?
Sandbags?


Civilian tractor trailer with a tankette or light armored vehicle hidden inside. Can be used for surprise assault on enemy or counter attack. Can also be used to carry an escape vehicle.



Vans used as guerrilla ambulances in urban environment










Guerrilla Air Force
(Unconventional Air Force)

Organization Stage
Following Giaps Four Phases of Guerrilla Warfare, the first stage of the new guerrilla air force is the Organization Stage. During the Organization stage secrecy is key. No offensive air action is taken during this time whatsoever. The enemy must not know of the existence of such a unit, or even suspect that such a unit exists.
Organized into Wings and Squadrons. 
Aerodrome.

Equipping
If creating an unconventional air force, military aircraft can be secretly purchased from another nation. If this is not practical or cost efficient, civilian aircraft can be used for military purposes. Weapons points can be added to the wings and bomb bays can be created. This tactic has been used successfully by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).



Civilian aircraft can be flown as civilian aircraft by a small nation during peacetime. Some pilots can be secretly trained to carry out raids and other military tactics. This is called the “Pilot X” program. Before the outbreak of hostilities with another nation, weapons points and bomb racks can be added. Secret airbases are planned out. The aircraft are to be hidden inside farmhouses, garages, camouflaged in fields, etc. Paved roads and highways without telephone poles or power lines nearby can be used as runways. Many nations, such as Sweden and the United States, practice take-off and landing operations on highways and roads in case of emergency. A secret fuel storage facility, weapons facility, and maintenance facility can be hidden at the secret airbase. These facilities can be disguised as ordinary houses, hidden below ground, or camouflaged with netting and foliage.


An invisible perimeter is established around the airbases and protected by secret guards. Some areas may even be set aside as a “Nature Preserve” or “Endangered Wildlife Area” and made off limits to most people.

Planning
Bombing campaigns and air raids are planned by the commanding officers of the air wing and coordinated with the army. Data collected about enemy facilities, airbases and camps are accumulated. Attacks can be planned around this data.

Guerrilla Warfare Stage
Strategic Equilibrium Stage
Conventional Warfare Stage

Strategy and Tactics
The tactics of a Guerrilla Air force should be, in principle, the same basic tactics as the guerrilla army, so-called hit and run tactics.

Attack, then quickly return to the hidden airbase or an alternative landing site and hide the aircraft well, so they can be used in another attack.

Runways can be lengthened to accommodate fighter aircraft and bomber aircraft from allied nations.

In a quick attack or a series of lightning fast attacks, wipe out all the enemy’s air assets, to gain air superiority.

Pilots can wear night vision goggles for night attacks.

Instead of air refueling, aircraft on special missions can "leap frog" or jump from one secret airbase to another, refueling at each stop.


Defensive Tactics
"Highway Strip"
A long strip of a civilian highway or road, used as an airstrip by military forces. This stretch of highway is usually made of concrete and thicker than the regular highway. Many nations have contingency plans to use highway strips during war time and practice using highway strips during peace time exercises. Highway strips usually measure between 2 to 3.5 km (1.2 to 2.2 miles).



Finnish F-18 (F/A-18) fighter jet taking off from a highway airstrip.




Polish MiG-21 fighter jets practice taking off and landing on a highway.

Before an invasion by a more powerful nation, aircraft may be covered with large tarps or sheets of plastic and buried in sand, or disassembled and hidden, later to be reassembled by aircraft mechanics. Weapons and equipment for the aircraft could have been hidden in advance as well. This tactic was used by Iraq during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Even during peace time, a couple of planes in each active duty squadron should be set aside and placed on "Alert" status. These aircraft are fully armed and ready for combat at all times. The pilots are close by and ready at all times.

Before or during the outbreak of hostilities with the enemy, pilots can eat and sleep in the cockpit of their aircraft.

Decoy planes can be positioned on an airfield.

Aircraft can be towed by trucks, or partially taken apart and taken away on trucks.

Secret tunnels and facilities can be made under or nearby air bases. If the air bases are captured by the enemy, the tunnels can be used to retake the airbases. The soldiers are pre-positioned there before the enemy invades or before the enemy completely captures the base.

Preflight check

Debriefing for pilots

Aircraft




Propeller Aircraft reminiscent of World War 1 and World War 2 aircraft.
Small wooden frame, canvas or fabric skinned aircraft with propeller powered engines. These aircraft are capable of taking off and landing in open fields, roads, and airstrips.
Propeller powered Bi-planes and monoplanes can be used.


Soviet Po-2 aircraft used during World War 2.



Croatian An-2 aircraft used during the Yugoslavian Civil War.

Biplanes have two pairs of wings, one pair of wings positioned above the other. Monoplanes have one pair of wings.

Engines may be cut while approaching the target area and the plane can be silently glided over the target. The plane drops bombs, fires machine guns, etc. then cuts the engine back on and escapes. These tactics were used by Russian female pilots, called the Nachthexen ("Night Witches") by the Germans, during the Second World War.

Weapons:
Throw bombs or hand dropped bombs




Flechettes





Small gravity bombs
Hand grenades
Molotov cocktails
Machine guns
Rifles
Pistols

Cargo Plane Bomber
Civilian or military cargo planes in which improvised bombs are dropped out of the door.

Propeller Bomber
Old propeller bombers can be bought, or civilian propeller aircraft can be purchased and converted.
A propeller bomber aircraft modeled after the German World War 1 era Gotha can be made.

“Invisible” aircraft made out of clear plastic, such as cellophane. The frame is wooden. The pilot, engine and frame are visible. The cellophane skin, however, shines and stands out in the sunlight. Experimented with but not too successful.

Vertical or Short Take-Off Jet Plane (Rocket Assisted)
This is a rocket assisted jet plane that can be fired from a truck. The plane is able to take off vertically on short notice. The jet plane has one or more rockets attached to it. The rockets are initiated and the jet engines are cut on while the fighter is in mid air. May be used as interceptors or for ambushes. Rocket assisted aircraft may allow aircraft to take off even if the runways are badly damaged. Rocket assisted aircraft were used frequently by the Germans during the second World War.

Composite Aircraft

A piloted smaller plane piggy backs on larger plane that is filled with explosives. The pilot (inside the top plane) flys the planes towards the target, lines up with the target, then detaches his aircraft. The pilot escapes on the smaller top plane, and guides the larger bottom plane towards its target using remote control. The larger remotely guided plane serves as a primitive guided missle, with a potentially large payload. The "missile" is made out of old aircraft and old aircraft frames. As long as the old aircraft has a servicible engine, it is suitable. Uses the engines and carrying capacity of the larger aircraft for most of the trip, until the smaller plane is detached. This idea comes from the German Mistel program that primarily used old Ju 88 aircraft as the "missile". Some of the guided missile planes were refitted with shaped charge heads.







"Kamikaze" Planes




Planes that deliberately target and crash into enemy ships or structures. Usually have extra bombs and explosives added.

Kamikaze Tactics
Sea Skimming against naval targets- To fly about 50 feet above sea level, then pull up to 1,500 feet above the sea, then dive down on the target.
High Dive- To dive out of the sky from about 20,000 feet, increasing the angle of the dive to 45-50 degrees at the end.
To maximize the effect of their attack, the kamikazes would first release bombs just before their planes hit the ship.
The second impact would be from the plane crashing into the target, which would lead to the fuel tanks exploding and sending burning gasoline into the damaged ship or building.
Many kamikaze planes would aim for the central flight deck elevator on the aircraft carrier, which could render the carrier useless.
May be painted blue or dark blue to match the water.

The World War 2 Japanese MXY7 Okha (Cherry Blossum) suicide aircraft, or piloted bomb was equipped with three rocket motors and carried about 2,646 lbs of High Explosives. The Okha flew at 390 mph and was delivered by the Japanese G4M "Betty" bomber.

The Kettering Bug

Remote Piloted Vehicle (RPV)

Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV)
Basically armed unmanned aerial vehicles or drones. Can be made from old, outdated aircraft. Can be crashed into enemy naval vessels or ground facilities.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or Drones
The Mirsad-1 UAV made by Hezbollah

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles produced by HAMAS



Loitering Unmanned Aerial Vehicles such as the Harpy or Harop.


Kit Planes
Usually small, light weight aircraft built from kits. Kit planes can be used for training aircraft, surveillance aircraft and perhaps light attack aircraft.

A Grand Duc kit plane used by the military of Benin. The Grand Duc is the militarized version of the LH-10 Ellipse with surveillance equipment.


Ultralight aircraft



Gliders
Used by both Axis and Allied forces during World War 2 to drop soldiers, and equipment behind enemy lines. Attached to transport aircraft by a cable and released over the target area.

Gliders are often used in modern times for training.

Hang Gliders
"Night of the Gliders"
25 November 1987- Two guerrillas from the PFLP-GC used motorized hang gliders to infiltrate the state of israel from southern Lebanon and kill 6 israeli soldiers before they themselves are killed. The guerrillas were armed with AK-47 assault rifles, pistols with silencers, and hand grenades.

Improvised Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Fiberglass




Helicopters
Helicopters can be assigned to the Army, Navy or Air Force depending on their mission. Camouflage patterns for the helicopters should be painted accordingly.

When approaching enemy targets, Ground Attack helicopters can fly low to the ground while in open planes, when approaching a forest or wooded area, they can fly just above tree top level, but below enemy radar. They can use natural cover and concealment such as flying through valleys, or flying around forest and wooded areas. They can hover above tree top level to attack, then take cover behind trees once more to withdraw.


Helipads can be hidden on the tops of buildings.



Helicopters can land in clearings in the forest or jungle. They can be camouflaged and hidden.



Helipads can be made in the jungle or an area that has rough terrain.







A football field can be used as a landing zone for helicopters in case of emergencies. Possible mobile weapons and fuel crews on stand-by.



Helicopters can be used to quickly transport troops from one area to another. Helicopter borne troops can be used as a rapid reaction or reserve force, filling in any breach in the lines. Helicopter borne troops can also unexpectedly attack the enemy from the rear or flank.



Helicopters can be used to expediently lay down mines and mine fields using scatterable mines. These mine fields can block an enemies advance or retreat, cover friendly forces flanks and defensive positions. They can also aid in the withdrawal of forces.



Helicopters can be used to quickly transport wounded soldiers to hospitals.



Civilian helicopters can also be modified and used as helicopter gunships. Machine guns and miniguns. Small rocket pods can be added to hardpoints.

Ultralight Helicopters, Autogyros or Gyrocopters
Small light weight one man craft with a propeller motor for propulsion and a rotary blade for lift. May have skids, wheels or floats for landing on water.





Airships or Dirigibles
Balloon Squadron

Observation balloons
Tethered to a mobile vehicle by steel cable.
Hoisted up and down by a wench.
Balloon operators may be equipped with parachutes in case of emergency.
Filled with non-flammable helium?

Aerostat

Balloon bombs such as the World war 2 era Japanese Fugo.
Free flying balloon bombs. Must have understanding of wind direction and weather forecast.
Laden with incendiary bombs, bombs, incendiaries, etc.



Conventional Fighter Jets
Should always be well dispersed and hidden and protected if possible.

Trainer/Light attack aircraft are becoming more popular. They are relatively inexpensive in comparison to actual fighter or attack aircraft and can be armed with a variety of weapons.

Rolls
Fighter
Ground Attack
Bombers
Interceptors
Reconnaissance


Aircraft Weapons
Gravity Bombs
Incendiary Bombs
Cluster Bombs
Chemical Bombs
Laser Guided Bombs
Fuel Air Explosives
Napalm
Penetration Bombs
Practice Bombs
Anti-tank missiles
Air-to-air missiles
Guns
Flechettes


Air Target Imitators (ATI) like the German ATI 5000.

Improvised Weapons for aircraft
Improvised Napalm bombs
Improvised MOAB
Improvised gravity bombs

Improvised bombs dropped from Croatian An-2  aircraft during the Yugoslavian Civil War.

Improvised Flechettes
Improvised Cruise Missiles


Decoy planes


Air Force Intelligence
Shortly after returning from an operation, pilots are to debrief an intelligence officer about certain details during the operation such as what type of weapons he encountered, how many enemies did he spot, where was a certain facility located, etc. This session is called Debriefing.

Aircraft with special cameras equipped, and take photos or video of enemy territory. The intelligence unit, upon arrival of the aircraft, analyzes the video or photographs.

Satellite photos can be acquired from a friendly nation with satellite photo technology, or purchased off of the Internet.

Small remote controlled aircraft with spy cameras attached can be purchased or made for intelligence gathering purposes.


Special Forces and Paratroops
Civilian or military aircraft can drop agents or commandos using commercial parachutes, etc.

Civilian or military helicopter/s drop commandos or agents behind enemy lines

Commandos or agents can slip into enemy territory using hang gliders.

A civilian airliner carrying Special Forces can land at an enemy airport. Perhaps the airliner can make an "Emergency" landing. Special Forces take the airport. May link up with Special Forces already on the ground to take over the airport, paving the way for more soldiers and equipment to be flown in. Th e Special Forces essentially turn the enemy civilian airport into an expedient military airbase. This tactic was used by the Soviet Union during the invasion of Afghanistan.

Once the airport/s is captured, military (or civilian) aircraft carrying more soldiers can land. Some of the first troops should be those who can run such a facility, air traffic control, fuels, aircraft mechanics, etc. Fighter jets can then begin landing on the base.

A secret “Jump School” for parachuting can be established and maintained.

If there are enough soldiers, a separate paratroop unit can be established. The paratroops can be part of the Air Force or the Army.

Paratroops carry light weapons and equipment and are highly mobile.

Paratroops are dropped behind enemy lines to capture or destroy key facilities.

If capturing a bridge, facility, or certain area is the objective, the paratroopers must be able to hold the objective until the main force arrives.

Heavier weapons and equipment can be dropped using special crates and pallets with multiple parachutes.

Paratroops should have basic military training for six weeks, regular light infantry training for another six weeks, then advance to the “Jump School”.

Specialized paratroop units can be created such as anti-tank and anti-aircraft paratroops. These units are specifically trained to be dropped behind enemy lines and ambush enemy armor and aircraft. A Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) or scout party is attached to each force and trained to penetrate enemy lines and report on their troop movements. The enemy tanks or aircraft are ambushed in their own territory. If attacking the enemy unit is not wise, information about the enemy force is radioed back to headquarters.















Guerrilla Navy
(Unconventional Navy)

Organization
The creation of a guerrilla or Unconventional Navy should be done with the utmost secrecy.
Equipping
May choose to purchase civilian ships and vessels and convert them to military use, or secretly purchase old military vessels. Vessels stolen or commandeered from the enemy are also ideal. Weapons should be secretly purchased or stolen. If weapons are to be manufactured or improvised they should be made by engineers and be of good, reliable quality.

Life jackets are worn by all Navy personnel while outside on deck.

Planning
Cothons (artificial harbors) can be made for naval craft.
Land based Naval airbase.
Sea Plane base


Strategy and Tactics
As in any guerrilla war, focus should be made on offensive attacks.

Large scale, lightning fast Blitzkrieg style attack on enemy targets.

Smaller scale attack on enemy target or targets.

Patrolling of guerrilla territory (island, river patrol, etc.) in civilian boats.

Small boats can be hidden in the jungle or forest, driven out of the jungles on trucks with trailers and backed out into the water. After a successful operation, the boats are loaded on the trailers and driven back to the jungle. This tactic was used by the naval wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka.





Naval smoke screen made by a boat with a metal barrel with oil in it. The oil is set on fire.

Ships
Guerrilla Aircraft Carrier
A large modified cargo ship or barge can be used to launch VTOL aircraft.
A large modified cargo ship or barge can have a flight deck added.

Guerrilla Helicopter Carrier
Helicopters land inside of numbered circles on the deck of the carrier or ship. The helicopters may be hidden inside fake shipping containers that open up.

Sea Plane Carrier




May look like an ordinary cargo ship. The sea planes are hoisted into the water by cranes or derricks. May have shed like hangars on the top deck, or be hidden inside fake shipping containers.

"Q" Ship
Merchant ship secretly converted into a fighting ship. Guns and missiles are hidden inside. These type of vessels were used by the British to lure in and destroy German U-Boats during World War 1 and World War 2. Modern Q ships could be armed with a variety of weapons including anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. The Russian made Club K container missile would be ideal for such a vessel.


Guerrilla Rocket Barge
Ordinary ship with wooden or metal shipping containers placed on the deck. Each shipping container has a multiple rocket launcher inside it. The shipping containers collapse or are opened up, and the unguided rockets are fired at the intended target. Can be individual rockets and launchers lined up.

Intelligence Gathering Vessel
Fishing boat or some civilian vessel with radar, cameras, radios and all forms of electronic eavesdropping equipment on board. Floats around enemy territory or just outside of enemy territorial waters. If approached by enemy forces, the boat can be quickly set on fire and the crew can attempt to swim away. Can position boats off shore to act as a primitive radar screen for approaching enemy aircraft. Part of the Naval Intelligence.

Patrol vessel
Similar to the Intelligence vessel, just more heavily armed and not as much sophisticated equipment on board. Disguised as fishing boats, etc. Patrol the waters around guerrilla territory. Each vessel can have some type of lookout equipped with a pair of binoculars. Some type of radar or sonar may also be added. A radio, cellular phone or some type of communications device is also needed.

Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV)
Remote operated boats or Unmanned Surface Vehicles such as the Protector.


Mine Laying Vessel
Civilian boats, such as fishing boats, etc., mine our territorial waters before an enemy invasion or they can mine enemy ports and harbors.

Submarines
Submariner
Conventional submarines, using diesel-electric and battery powered propulsion systems, are much quieter than nuclear submarines, however they must either snorkel or surface to re-charge their batteries by running their diesel engines.
Often used in "choke point operations" where constricted waters force enemy surface ships to travel through the submarines operating area.
Submarines can be used to launch cruise missiles or improvised cruise missiles.
Submarines can be used to lay sea mines.
Submarines can be used to land Special Forces. Special Forces disembark from submarines on rubber rafts.
Modified submarines can be used to launch aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles.
An underwater tunnel can be made to hide submarines in and protect them from attack. Possibly even nuclear attack.

Supply submarines like the Japanese World War 2 era Type C3 (I-52, I-53, I-55) can be used to smuggle vital supplies past enemy blockades and effectively bypass enemy sanctions. Modern supply submarines don't have to be nearly as large as the Type C3.

Submarines that carry aircraft like the World War 2 Japanese I-400 submarine. The I-400 class was the largest submarine class during World War 2. The I-400 was capable of carrying 3  Aichi M6A1 aircraft. The I-400 would surface, launch its aircraft, then quickly dive again.



Midget Submarines
Used mostly for coastal defense or coastal attacks. Do not handle well on the high seas.
May have external torpedo tubes. Midget submarines were used World War 2 primarily by the Japanese and Germans. North Korea currently uses a small number of midget submarines in their navy. The Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka built a midget submarine. Sub pens hidden in grottos or camouflaged cothons.





Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV)
Small remote controlled submarines.


Submersibles



Submersibles have been used by drug cartels in Columbia and Mexico to transport drugs, money, and people. Usually made from fiberglass.

Explosive laden speed boat
Can ram into the enemy vessel and detonate or pull up alongside the enemy vessel and detonate. The front part of the speed boat can be armored to protect the driver from being hit by small arms fire.
The Japanese Shinyo suicide boats were around 18 feet in length and held about 4,406 lbs of High Explosives in the bow of the boat in addition to depth charges fused to detonate on impact. The boats were powered by two automobile engines. The Shinyo boats were launched into the water by trolleys and painted dark green in color to camouflage with their environment.
Speed boats can emerge from seaside caves or grottos. The entrances to these caves and grottos can be hidden and camouflaged.
Speed boats can emerge from larger, slower vessels.
Potential use of remote controlled explosive laden speedboats in the future.










12 OCT 2000- An explosive laden boat pulls up to the USS Cole in the Aden harbor and detonates killing 17 U.S. sailors.

23 NOV 02- An explosive laden fishing boat blows up next to an israeli patrol craft. Two members of Islamic Jihad are martyred in the attack. 4 israelis wounded.

24 APR 04- 2 U.S. Navy sailors and 1 Coast Guardsman are killed in a suicide boat attack near an oil facility in the Persian Gulf. The Dhow was boarded by the boarding party and exploded.


Torpedo Boat
Used mainly for coastal defense. External torpedo tubes.

Fast Attack Craft carrying Anti-Ship missiles

Civilian cargo ships or cruise ships can be used to transport soldiers. May be possible to sail right into the enemy port or harbor. Naval commandos on civilian cargo ships can secure the enemy port and pave the way for a larger invasion force.

Oil tankers, ships carrying natural gas or other explosive materials can be commandeered and sailed straight into a strategic enemy port or harbor then detonated.

Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (or Underwater Chariots)
Swimmer Delivery Vehicles are akin to small submarines or submersibles used to transport naval commandos and their equipment greater distances than most commandos can swim. Used frequently by Italian and British naval commandos during World War 2.



A kayak or canoe can be used by naval commandos to plant limpet mines on enemy vessels. A historical example including the use of canoes would be the 1942 Operation Frankton, during which British commandos used Mark II "Cockle" canoes to plant limpet mines on German ships.


Underwater Scooter (also called Underwater Propulsion Vehicles or Diver Propulsion Vehicles)





Naval Aircraft
Sea Planes
May have any variety of configurations such as: dive bombers, anti-ship missiles, and torpedo dive bombers.
Strong winds may cause a problem hoisting sea planes in or out of the water.
Choppy winds may prevent sea planes from taking off.

Carrier Borne Aircraft
Inclusive of modern carrier borne fighter aircraft and World War 1 and World War 2 era propeller aircraft. Perhaps the use of a modern propeller engine trainer/light attack aircraft such as the EMB 312 Tucano or the Pilatus PC-7.  This category also includes carrier borne sea planes.

Carrier Borne Helicopters
Helicopters may be equipped for a variety of missions including ground attack, transport, mine laying, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), and rescue operations. On a cargo ship or civilian vessel, helicopters may be hidden in false shipping containers.


Submarine Borne Aircraft such as the Japanese Aichi M6A1 aircraft used during World War 2. The M6A1 was used on board of the I-400 Class submarine.





Naval Commandos or Navy Special Forces








Combat Boarding
with the objective of destroying, capturing, or commandeering the enemy vessel.

A commando can climb the anchor chain of a vessel that has been anchored.

Commandos in small boat or rubber raft use a ladder to climb aboard an enemy vessel.

A grappling hook and rope used to climb aboard an enemy vessel.


Underwater Demolitions

Destroying Enemy Vessels
Commando divers can swim up next to the enemy ship and plant limpet mines on the hull of the vessel.
Naval commandos can use a small boat or raft to approach the enemy vessel and fire an armor piercing rocket at the ships hull or plant a limpet mine or plastic explosives.
Naval commandos can cut the chain of a hidden anchored contact mine, letting the mine float upwards into an enemy vessel.
Naval commandos can use old ships, sunken ships, or camouflaged grottoes as a small base of operations to launch their attacks from.



Historical Examples of Naval Commandos:
World War 2 Italian Decima Flotiglia MAS frogmen
World War 2 Japanese Fukuryu (Crouching Dragon) frogmen
Vietnamese Dak Cong water borne attacks
Tamil Tiger Sea Tiger combat divers


02 MAY 1964- North Vietnamese special forces (Dac Cong) attack the USS Card docked in Saigon Harbor severely damaging the vessel.

26 MAR 2004- Attempted infiltration of the illegal zionist settlement of Tel Katifa by 2 members of HAMAS. The HAMAS commandos infiltrated from the Mediterranean Sea wearing scuba gear, wet suits, flippers, and goggles. A gun battle ensued, killing both the HAMAS frogmen.









Naval Weapons

Piloted Torpedoes
Torpedoes driven into their targets such as the Japanese Kaiten used during World War 2.






Sea Mines
Influence Mines- Influence mines are usually magnetic and are attracted to the metal of a ships hull.
Contact Mines- Contact mines detonate on direct contact with the enemy vessel. Free floating contact mines or anchored contact mines. Anchored mines are below the surface of the water and cannot be easily seen.

Mine that fires a torpedo like the Mk 60 CAPTOR

Rocket mines (or rocket rising mines) like the Russian PMK-2 and Chinese EM52.

Limpet mines a placed on a ships hull by combat divers. Limpet mines attach magnetically to the ships hull.

Torpedoes
Long range torpedoes such as the Torpedo 2000

Depth Charges


Anti-Ship Missiles
Sea skimming anti-ship missiles. Some anti-ship missiles can be modified to be used as surface-to-surface cruise missiles.

1982- Argentine forces used Exocet anti-ship missiles to destroy a British destroyer and a merchant ship during the war in the Malvinas (Falkland Islands).

14 JUL 2006- Hezbollah forces severely damage an israeli corvette with a C-802 (or Iranian copy) anti-ship missile.

Anti-Ship Ballistic Missiles such as the Chinese DF-21D and the Iranian Khalij Fars ("Persian Gulf") missile. This type of anti-ship missile is untested in actual combat to date.



Missile that scatters sea mines over a certain area. When the enemy clears the area, another missile can be fired to scatter sea mines in the designated area all over again.

Rockets

Anti-tank guided missiles can be used against enemy naval vessels within range.

Example:
15 JUL 2015- "ISIS" terrorist in Egypt fire an anti-tank missile at an Egyptian Navy frigate in the Sinai Peninsula, striking the vessel and setting it ablaze. Other nearby Egyptian naval vessels rescue the ships crew from the burning ship. The attack took place in Rafah in the Sinai peninsula along the Mediterranean. Rafah is located near israel and the Gaza Strip.




Improvised Anti-Ship Missiles (Cruise Missiles) 
Improvised Torpedoes
Improvised Sea Mines
Improvised Limpet Mines





Decoy Submarines
Decoy Ships





Bow
Stern
Port
Aft
Starboard


Information on hull thickness on different types of naval vessels.






Pirates or Privateers
The use of modern day privateers to steal from the merchant vessels of enemy nations under the guise of being just simple pirates. The items are taken back to the country or given to the privateers.





Coastal Defense
Secret underwater  torpedo bases or fixed coastal defense installations that fire torpedoes.

Historical:
9 April 1940- The secret underground torpedo battery at fortress Oscarsborg in Norway fires upon and sinks the German heavy cruiser, Blucher.

Anti-ship missiles

Multiple rocket launchers and artillery

Anti-tank missiles

Beach defenses and obstacles.

Sea mines and land mines.

Counter Commandos who watch out for and hunt enemy commandos.

Patrol boats

Coastal midget submarines







Guerrilla Engineering


Cut footsteps into a mountain side or hill side.


Bridges
Simple pontoon bridges made of bundles of bamboo lashed together and topped with heavy wooden planking. Other materials may include barrels, boats, and decking materials.

Wooden canal boats or barges tied together. Foliage added to camouflage them from aerial surveillance.

Bridge laid slightly under water to escape detection.

Mobile bridge layers

Pre-made wooden suspension bridges or rope bridge.




Observation Post

Use Observation Posts (OP) to covertly gather intelligence on enemy forces and report back to a Command Post (CP) or Head Quarters (HQ).




Bunkers
Characteristics
Some type of ventilation or air conditioning.
Waterproofing can be done by adding a thick plastic cover over the bunkers main structure before burying it or adding sandbags.

The Branch Davidian group in the WACO, Texas, used an old bus buried under the ground as a bunker.

The same can be done with a large metallic shipping container found on a cargo vessel or freight train.

Mines and caves can be converted into bunkers.

A system or series of connected bunkers.

Basement Bunker
A basement or cellar can be turned into a bunker. Windows can be covered with chicken wire to prevent grenades from being tossed in. Sandbags can be placed along the walls of the basement or cellar. Trenches can be dug inside the basement for additional cover. The basement in turn can be utilized as a Command Post, etc. Multiple houses can be linked together by connecting the basements together with a network of tunnels.

House Bunker
A room on the first floor of a house or building can also be turned into a bunker in the same fashion with sandbags placed along the walls of the room. A trench can be dug on the floor if the house has only one room and additional cover is necessary. Windows can be used as ports to fire out of. A small hole in the wall large enough for one man to crawl through at a time called a "mouse hole" can be made linking one room to the next and providing an escape route. The mouse hole can be hidden by a piece of furniture. Another hole in the wall about the height of a mans chest and head can serve as a firing port for a bunker in another room. If the enemy kicks the door in of the house and enters the first room, he will find another bunker in the next room. The walls of the next room can be sand bagged as well. A concealed mouse hole leading to another room or outside can be made. This mouse hole should be covered up on the outside of the house as well, perhaps by a garbage can, an old plywood board, etc.


NAZI bunkers

An example of a WW2 German pillbox from "Camouflage and Deception for Urban Warfare".

Werewolf
The NAZI guerrillas, known as the Werewolf, hid bunkers in the rural areas of Germany. After the enemy passed their positions, they would later emerge, mostly at night, to conduct their activities. These activities included sniping, sabotage, assassination and espionage.




The Japanese made many bunkers in the jungles of Asia out of coconut tree logs and camouflaged them.




Vietcong and NVA bunkers
Vietcong bunkers on Hill 108 were well camouflaged bunkers with logs for overhead cover. Natural vegetation planted on top. Vegetation had been cropped about six inches from the ground, giving the Vietcong a good field of fire.





Hezbollah bunkers

HAMAS bunkers
Underground network of tunnels and bunkers inside HAMAS controlled Gaza Strip used to ambush israeli forces. HAMAS fighters ambush the israelis in one area, then go back into the tunnels to re-emerge in a different area and ambush the israelis again.


Similar type of tunnels and bunkers used by Islamic Jihad forces in Gaza.


The Chechens were known to hide in holes covered over with a slab of concrete. The slab of concrete was lifted with a car jack.


Example of an urban spider hole cover from "Camouflage and Deception for Urban Warfare"


In World War 2 England some pillboxes and bunkers were disguised as houses and farmhouses in preparation for a German invasion. The bunkers were composed mostly of concrete and reinforced steel. A wooden frame and roof may be added to the bunker for additional realism.

Dirt and sod covered bunkers that blend in with hills and hillsides. Grass may be grown naturally on top of the bunkers for camouflage. Bushes, trees, etc., can be added. Hidden entrances.

Swiss Farmhouse Bunker

Swiss Mountainside Fortress



Swiss Tank Turret Bunker



Trench bunker
Usually part of a trench system.

Portable bunkers such as the Russian made Gorchak.

Sandbag bunkers


Reinforced Concrete bunkers

Around 750,000 bunkers dot the countryside of Albania. Built during the Cold War to fight off a potential invasion from NATO or the Soviet Union.


Tunnels
Use of tunnels by Chinese guerrillas against Japanese occupation forces during the Second World War.

Tunnel War (Di Dao Zhan 地道战)- A 1965 Chinese movie based upon the exploits of Chinese guerrillas during the Japanese occupation of China during the Second World War. 


The tunnels of Cu Chi used by the Vietcong in the Iron Triangle of Vietnam
The entrances to some tunnels were in vegetated areas and well camouflaged.
Some tunnel entrances were under water.



Vie Cong Shelters and Hides





North Korean tunnels under the 38th Parallel in Korea

Smuggling tunnels between the Mexican and American borders

Smuggling tunnels along the border between Egypt and Gaza used by the Palestinians.

Secret tunnels and facilities can be made under certain government buildings or installations. If the buildings are captured by the enemy, the tunnels can be used to retake the buildings. Soldiers are pre-positioned in the tunnels before the enemy invades or before the enemy completely captures the installation. This tactic was used by the Securitate forces in Romania during the civil strife in 1989.



Underground Shooting Range
In 1999, an underground shooting range belonging to the Real IRA was discovered in Dublin County, Ireland. The shooting range was converted from an old wine cellar in a farmhouse. The shooting range was also sound proofed using old car tires.

Secret underground medical facilities were used by the Viet Cong and Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front (EPLF)

grenade sump


Trenches
Mostly used in open warfare when no cover is available.
Dummy trenches can be dug to get the enemy to waste bombs, ammunition and time attacking them.
Reserve trenches can be made in case the front line trenches are over ran.


Defense Works

Foxholes
A hole dug by one individual soldier to protect the soldier from enemy fire.


Vietcong Spider Hole
Camouflaged covered foxhole used by the Vietcong to snip and ambush enemy forces. The Vietcong guerrilla would emerge, fire, and hide again. Many were made from large clay pots with bamboo ventilation tubes. Often used to fire at enemy boats traveling along a river. A Vietcong sniper in a spider hole could position himself in between two enemy units, fire at one unit, and hide. This confused the enemy, who often thought the other unit was an enemy unit firing upon them, thus inducing fratricide.

Snipers in spider holes could wait for days to engage enemy boats or foot patrols.




Moats


Anti-Tank ditches

Mine Fields
Planned out and mapped by engineers.

Cheval de Frise- Called the "Frisian Horse" by the French. Used by the Frisians of coastal Germany and the Netherlands to compensate for their lack of cavalry on the battlefield. A mobile defense consisting of a log with wooden or iron stakes on it. Each log rested on two sets of prongs, one set on either side. Later replaced by barbed wire.

"Dragons Teeth"



"Hedgehogs"


Barbed Wire

Concertina Wire

Concertina Wire wrapped around barbed wire.










Guerrilla Support Units

Medical Corps
Composed of doctors, nurses, and medics. Medical supplies and books secretly purchased, or stolen. Possible training program and training center. Secret hospitals in caves, underground bunkers, tunnels, and private homes. A one day supply of medicine is kept on hand, and the rest is hidden off site until needed. First Aid kits issued to all units. Medicine and Antidotes to common poisons are kept stocked.

Guerrilla Ambulance
Unmarked vans can be used to evacuate the wounded to secret hospitals or safe houses. The vans are placed on stand-by during combat and are tended by trained Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT's) in civilian clothes.


Secret Repair Facilities

Weapons making factory
Produces improvised weapons and booby traps. At least one weapons making factory in every guerrilla controlled town or village. Detailed manuals for constructing weapons should be made available. Produce mostly improvised grenades and mines.


Armorer
The armorer is charged with maintaining the armory. Maintains and issues weapons and ammunition. May also be charged with reloading cartridges. Maintains an armory of weapons. Reloading equipment to reload empty cartridge cases. Gunsmithing manuals. Weapons manuals. Spare parts, including extra barrels, grips, stocks, butt stocks, belt linking device to load ammunition on belts, etc. Cleaning supplies. Boresighting equipment.

Supply Corps or Quartermaster
Issues boots, shoes, gloves, blankets, shovels, emergency food supplies, cellphones, water, batteries, nails, gas mask, night vision equipment, bullet proof vests, power generators, fuel and oil rations, spare parts for vehicles, etc.
Bulk supplies can be hidden in cellars, basements or cached. A supply depot can be called a "warehouse".
The development of MRE's (Meals Ready to Eat) or prepackaged food rations. May include Kosher or Halal food rations.

Secret workshops with sewing machines and spools of cloth to make and repair uniforms or clothes for the guerrillas and the people. Each village may be responsible for making uniforms. Standardization of uniforms. May use sewing patterns to aid in standardization. A clothing allowance may be given to certain units or individuals.



The Viet Cong produced sandals made out of old tires called dép lốp nicknamed "Ho Chi Minh sandals".


Transportation Corps
Secretly moves soldiers and supplies in and out of the war zone.Cars, trucks, buses, boats, planes, etc. If the military forces are small, a separate Transportation Corp may not be necessary. Vehicles can be used on a smaller, operational level.

Finance and Economic Section
In charge of fundraising, and banking. This section may also include purchasing agents.
"Revolutionary Fundraising" (Bank Robberies) may be necessary.
"Revolutionary Taxes" (Extortion)
The organization can be financed in part by a legitimate business or businesses. Most of the profits go towards the organization.

Engineer Corps
In charge of the construction of secret guerrilla facilities, defense works, bridges, bunkers, etc.

A rapid reaction repair unit modeled after the North Vietnamese Youth Shock Brigades. Stationed near heavily bombed routes and deployed to repair bridges, roads, tracks, tunnels and other structures. Repairs often done at night. Building supplies can be prepositioned along roads near various choke points.


Chemical Corps or Chemical Defense Corps

Gas masks, chemical protected suits and gloves. Chlorine bleach for cleaning. Chemical detection device or kit. Manual on chemical defense.










Strategic Missile Forces

Strategic Missile Forces or Strategic Rocket Corps are charged with the handling and maintaining of surface-to-surface missiles.

Establish Doctrine

Develop indigenous programs similar to the German V-1 and V-2 missile programs.

Missile silos can be hidden underground or if they are above ground made to look like grain silos, buildings, 
etc.


 Underground missile silo.

Above ground missile silo disguised as grain silo.

Missiles can be transported or perhaps even fired from trucks disguised as large civilian transport trucks.


Stealth Missile
A stealth missile program can be developed










Guerrilla Logistics



Logistical

Local Supply
The enemy can be the chief supplier of arms. Use the enemy to bring in supplies, then steal them or raid his arms and supply depots.
Use black market sources to purchase weapons and equipment.
Food can be secretly grown by guerrillas or supporters.
Food can be taxed or purchased from local farmers and peasants.
Food can be captured or stolen from the enemy.



Large Movements of Soldiers and Supplies
Secret trails for the movement of supplies and soldiers can be established much like that of the Ho Chi Minh trail.

Not just one trail but a network of different trails. In case one trail is discovered, bombed, attacked, destroyed, etc. the other secret trails remain unscathed.

Foot paths and small trails are used to move soldiers in secret.
Armed guides lead troops to secret way stations along the trail. The guides only know their section of trail. The thick forest hides troop movements from normal aerial surveillance.

Roads are primarily used for vehicles transporting supplies.
Roads are "roofed" over with a network of branches, brush, etc. to hide the trail from aerial surveillance.
Vehicles on the road sported camouflage foliage on top.
Vehicles move mostly at night. truck headlights may be mounted under the vehicle to avoid aerial detection.
Drivers along the roadways may be guided along by poles painted white or personnel dressed in white.
Waterways
Signs of movement on the trail are concealed or kept to a minimum.


Way stations along the trails provide food, shelter, medical support and guides to infiltrating troops between trail segments.
Logistics troops operate the way stations along the secret trails. These logistics soldiers are responsible for the air and land defense along the trail and the delivery of supplies and soldiers. They are also responsible for road repair, vehicle repair and maintenance.
The way stations are usually about 1 days distance from one another.

Trail watching units established to watch for enemy infiltration on the trail.

The enemy may try to leave sensors hidden along the trail to gather intelligence on guerrilla activities.

Sound and seismic sensors can be destroyed, moved to useless locations. The batteries can be removed. Tape recordings of truck traffic can also be played.

Chemical sensors can be neutralized by leaving buckets of urine hanging on trees over the transportation network.

Weapon and Supply caches

Tunnels can be dug to smuggle supplies from one place to another.

Secret underground fuel pipelines

Oil and gas hidden in small drums throughout the countryside.

Before a major attack supplies can be hidden along the route.

In order to guard against the discovery and loss of all or most of the supplies, the supplies should be widely dispersed into numerous caches and depots.



Material can be pre-positioned in preparation for an operation.

Weapons and ammunition can be cached along the route of a future operation.







2 comments:

Unknown said...

Wtf does this have to do with kiska island

Unknown said...

Wtf does this have to do with kiska island