Thursday, March 03, 2011

Undermining


Undermining is done with the intent to collapse or destroy enemy fortifications by digging tunnels underneath the fortifications and either detonating explosives or setting ablaze flamable material below the intended target.

Historical Examples
Numerous sieges during Ancient and Medieval times.
The Siege of Petersburg in 1863 during the U.S. Civil War.
The Battle of Messines in 1917 during World War 1.

Modern Examples
12 DEC 04- Palestinian guerrillas dig a tunnel under an israeli checkpoint and detonate explosives under it. 4 israeli soldiers killed. The explosion was followed up by gunfire. 800 yard tunnel and over 1 ton of explosives used. HAMAS and the Fatah Hawks claim responsibility.








Guerrilla Sniping



1990 through 1997- IRA snipers from South Armagh kill around a dozen British soldiers and RUC officers. The South Armagh snipers are known to have used the .50 cal Barrett M82A1.

03 MAR 2002- A hilltop sniper positioned outside an israeli settlement shoots and kills 10 israeli soldiers and settlers. The sniper fires 25 shots in 25 minutes and escapes, leaving the rifle behind.

2003 through 2008-  A sniper in Iraq called "Juba" was believed to be responsible for the deaths of dozens of U.S. soldiers.



Create training program and training manual for snipers.
Shooting drills

Targets should be set up at 300 meters, 600 meters, and 1000 meters.

If the shooter is distant, he should move closer to the enemy before taking a shot.

The best way to learn how to shoot in the wind is to practice on windy days.

Marksmanship
Fieldcraft
Tactics

A sniper can cover a large open area if properly positioned.

Target enemy snipers, enemy commanders, officers, etc.

Assist friendly operations

A sniper covering a mixed minefield (both anti-personnel and anti-tank mines mixed together) makes an effective defense. The minefield appears to be just an open field. The sniper can even lure the enemy into the minefield.

Reliable silencers (sound suppressors) can be added to rifles in order to minimize or eliminate the sound of the gunshot.

If silencers are not available, the least the sniper can do is add a flash suppressor to the rifle in order to minimize the flash of the gunshot.

At the guerrilla hideout, the sniper can leave his bullets exposed, so the air can dull them. While in the combat area, the bullets will not have as much as a shine or glare to them.

Snipers can work as individuals, teams, two man units alternating between sniper and spotter.
A team of snipers can be positioned on or in different buildings or firing positions in an urban or rural environment. Some type of communication system, such as headsets, can be used to relay targeting information.

A dummy sniper or dead enemy body positioned like a sniper can be used as a decoy to draw enemy attention away from the true snipers position. The dummy can be placed in an obvious or not so obvious firing position and not so well camouflaged. A shining scope, metallic watch, colorful patch, cigarette butts, etc. should give away the dummies position.

A dead enemy body or a dummy dressed in an enemy uniform can be positioned some where in the open for the enemy to see. When the enemy approaches to check on the body, a sniper or team of snipers can shoot the enemy or group of enemies. The body or dummy may also be booby trapped.

Snipers cover roads and snip at enemy convoys.

Snip the enemy at night using a night vision scope. Harass the enemy at night to cause fear and panic and to deny him rest. If night vision is not available, shoot enemies that stand in well-lit areas. The sniper, on the other hand, moves and hides in the shadows.

Use rifle rests or platforms to stabalize the rifle. A bi-pod, a sand sock, a rock, a log, an improvised bi-pod made from two sticks and string, etc. can be used as rifle rests.

Calm controlled breathing.
Fire upon exhaling
Squeeze the trigger slowly. Do not jerk the trigger.
Movement into position is deliberate and slow.
Movement while stalking is quiet and slow. The body should be crouched down slightly.

"Freezing"

Countertracking

The “Fish Hook”
If the sniper is being pursued from a distance, the sniper may choose to move past a hill and circle half way around the other side of the hill unobserved making a "J" or "Fish Hook" and climbing the hill to set up a concealed firing position on top.


Tracking


Backtracking
A sniper can stop at a stream and back track walking backwards over his own footprints, being careful not to double the foot prints. The sniper continues to walk backwards in his own footprints until he comes across a log, etc. The sniper jumps over the log or obstacle and takes a different route. The sniper can choose to set up a firing position nearby or continue along the new route.






Stalking






Hides or Camouflaged Firing Positions
Constructing a hide


Sniping enemies with body armor
Armor piercing bullets can be used to penetrate an enemy’s body armor depending on the caliber of the rifle and the Level of the body armor.

If no armor piercing bullets are available, the enemy should be shot between the gaps in his body armor, such as the face, neck, and the area on the side of the body under the armpits.






Lethal poison can be added to bullets increasing the chance of killing the enemy. With poisoned bullets, an enemy shot in the leg could potentially die of his wounds. The poison can be applied inside hollow portion of a Hollow Point bullet, or the bullet itself can be smeared with poison or placed in a lethal solution. Great care should be made not to directly touch the poison or the poison tipped bullet itself. Chemical protective gloves, masks, and other necessary equipment should be worn.
Cyanide tipped bullets were allegedly used by members of the Symbionese Liberation Army. Cyanide bullets have also allegedly been found in FARC arms caches. 

Wind and Range estimation


Counter-sniping


Urban Sniping
Snipers may be placed in masonry buildings on the flanks or rear. They should have a long range field of fire. Snipers should not be placed in obvious such as rooftops or church steeples. A sniper should have multiple positions maintained.

After firing, a sniper may wish to displace and change locations so as to avoid enemy counter fire.

The guerrilla sniper should always try to stay in the back of a room or in the shadows of a room in case the enemy looks inside the room, he should only see darkness. The enemy, however, is still completely visible and within the wide range of the sniper.

A table can be used by a sniper positioned in the back of a room. The sniper may even choose to sit in a chair.

If a fixed firing position is created, the area around the snipers rifle can be wet down so the sniper will not send up a cloud of dust when firing that will reveal his position.

In open combat, careful consideration should be made to urban camouflage for the guerrilla sniper. The face should be painted or covered to avoid the natural oiliness or gloss of the skin. Square and rectangle patterns consisting primarily of straight lines to mimic bricks, blocks, walls, etc. of the urban environment should be worn. Brick red, sand, olive green or gray, dark gray, light gray, and white. The sniper rifle should be camouflaged with tape or strips of cloth of the same colors.

In a guerrilla war the sniper should wear civilian clothing in an urban environment and great care should be made to conceal weapons and equipment while moving in and out of position. The next firing position should be thought of in advance, just as an escape route should be thought of in advance.


The urban guerrilla sniper can shoot at an enemy tank or armored vehicle to lure it down an alley and into an anti-tank trap or ambush.

Urban Firing Positions

Always have infiltration and escape routes preplanned.


Tall buildings and structures are preferable to shoot from. A tall building overlooking an enemy base or position is ideal.

If firing from behind a car, garbage dumpster, small wall, log, etc. the sniper should not be leaned over the center of the object. The sniper should position himself at the front or rear of the object, kneeling or laying down. This helps avoid sky lining, or showing ones silhouette or shadow against the sky behind him. A car or small brick wall with a hump at the top looks unnatural and is an obvious giveaway to the snipers position.

Instead of firing from a window or rooftop, a sniper can take position inside the roof itself and fire from a hole. Once more, care should be taken to hide the barrel and muzzle flash of the rifle.




If the sniper is firing from a room out of a window, he should not have his rifle or barrel hanging out of the window. The sniper should not be seen at all. The sniper should position himself in the shadows in the back of the room, yet still be able to view the specified area clearly. The sniper can even position himself in the next room back from the room with the window. A hole can be made in the wall of this room, giving the sniper a view of the window in the next room and the open area outside the window. A fixed firing position can be fortified with sandbags along the wall. The sniper can sit in a chair and position himself at a table. The area around the firing position where the rifle will placed be can be wet down so as not to send up a cloud of dust after the sniper fires, revealing the snipers position.


The Mobile Sniper Platform
A guerrilla sniper can hide inside of a car or truck, hit his target and make his escape unnoticed. The guerrilla sniper should lay flat on his stomach in appropriate firing position. A hole can be cut in the back of the truck or the trunk of the car.


Urban sniper responsibilities
Cover Obstacles
Cover Roofs
Cover Dead Space (large open areas)
Cover gaps in defense



Rural Sniping
Snipers in rural environments can use a variety of camouflage including local foliage, fatigue uniforms, camouflage blankets and netting, face paint, and “ghillie” suits.



Desert Sniping
The sniper should be covered with a light brown or sand colored blanket to camouflage himself and or his position.
If a sniping position is created, the area around the snipers rifle should be wet so the sniper will not send up a cloud of dust when firing that will reveal his position.


Winter Sniping
To blend in with the snow hooded white coats, coveralls or smocks can be worn. White blankets or sheets can be used to cover the sniper. The hands should be kept warm with gloves or mittens made for shooters. The face can be covered with a white mask. A black gun should also be camouflaged with white tape or cloth along the length of the barrel and butt stock.




Sniping grounded enemy aircraft
Engines
Avionics inside the cockpit
Landing gear (wheels)
Pilots or ground crew

Sniping enemy helicopters
Engines
Rotary blades
Pilots or ground crew



Sniping parts on enemy tanks
Fire at the tanks exposed optics and fire control instruments






Sniping enemy vehicles
Engine
Driver
Tires
Headlights
Infrared or Night Vision sights
Exposed enemy personnel



Sniping at Naval vessels
A sniper armed with an anti-material/sniper rifle can fire at passing enemy vessels from a concealed position along the coast or from another vessel. Can fire at enemy vessels at port. Disable or destroy key systems.
Radars
Sonar
Antenna-
Bridge or Helm
Rudders
Missiles, Torpedoes, and ordnance- May cause detonation if the appropriate ammunition is used by the sniper.
Guns and Crew Served Weapons
Enemy personnel on deck.
Helicopters on deck- Deal damage to the engines, rotor, cockpit, and/or fuel tanks of a helicopter.









Sniper Equipment
Scope
Night Vision Scope
Laser Range Finder
Silencer or Sound Suppressor
Armor Piercing Ammunition
Communications equipment such as headsets

Improvised Ghille Suit
Camouflage uniform
Netting placed over uniform and cut to form fit over camouflage uniform. The netting is glued or sewed onto the uniform. A bit of tug room or looseness to allow tying strips of cloth on the netting.
Strips of cloth of appropriate colors are added and frayed on ends.

Use of Periscope Rifles from a fixed firing position?
Used during trench warfare during World War 1.




Remotely Operated Sniper Rifle?





Vehicle mounted anti-aircraft guns are often used in anti-sniper operations.



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