Wednesday, February 11, 2015

Strategy




Strategy




"Warfare is based upon deception."
-Sun Tzu

"When able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near."
-Sun Tzu

"Hold out baits and entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him."
-Sun Tzu

"So in war, the way is to avoid what is strong and strike what is weak."
-Sun Tzu

"If my enemy doesn't know where I am going to attack he is forced to prepare everywhere. Forced to prepare everywhere he is strong nowhere."
-Sun Tzu

"Turn the imperialist war into a civil war"
-Lenin





The 36 Strategems of Ancient China

1. Fool the Emperor to Cross the Sea
2. Besiege Wei to Rescue Zhao
3. Kill With a Borrowed Sword
4. Await the Exhausted Enemy At Your Ease
5. Loot a Burning Building
6. Make a Noise in the East, and Strike in the West
7. Create Something From Nothing
8. Openly Repair the Walkway, Secretly March to Chanan
9. Observe the Fire on the Opposite Shore
10. Hide the Dagger Behind a Smile
11. Let the Plum Tree Wither in Place of the Peach
12. Seize the Opportunity to Lead the Sheep Away
13. Beat the Grass to Startle the Snake
14. Borrow a Corpse to Raise the Spirit
15. Lure the Tiger Down the Mountain
16. To Catch Something, First Let It Go
17. Toss Out a Brick to Attract Jade
18. To Catch the Bandit First Capture Their Leader
19. Steal Fire Wood From Under the Pot
20. Trouble the Water to Catch the Fish
21. Shed Your Skin Like the Golden Cicada
22. Shut the Door to Catch a Thief
23. Befriend a Distant Enemy to Attack a Nearby Enemy
24. Borrow the Road to Conquer Guo
25. Replace the Beams With Rotten Timbers
26. Point At the Mulberry Tree, But Curse the Locust Tree
27. Feign Madness, But Keep Your Balance
28. Lure Your Enemy Onto the Roof, Then Take the Ladder
29. Deck the Dead Tree With Silk Blossoms
30. Exchange the Role of Guest for that of Host
31. The Strategy of Beautiful Women
32. The Strategy of Open Gates
33. The Strategy of Sowing Discord
34. The Strategy of Injuring Yourself
35. The Strategy of Combining Tactics
36. If All Else Fails...Retreat


Blitzkrieg ("Lightning War")
Relies upon rapid speed and force to quickly break through enemy lines. Uses combined arms of aircraft, vehicles, and infantry.
















Flanking Maneuver (Single Envelopment)

Pincer Movement (Double Envelopment)

Encirclement

Breakout

Breaking out of enemy encirclement

Guerrilla forces break down into smaller groups and sneak past enemy lines. Guerrilla forces reassemble at predesignated location.


Siege

Blockade

Land Blockade
Example:
Blockade of the Nepalese capital Kathmandu by the Communist party of Nepal (CPN) during the Civil War in Nepal. Highways and roads leading to the capital were frequently blocked by CPN supporters.

Sea Blockade



Guerrilla Blitzkrieg
Popular Revolt or Civil Uprising

At this stage the guerrillas should outnumber the enemy and should have the support of the masses. The entire population can then be mobilized to sweep the enemy out of the nation. Success depends on the support of the majority of the population. Offensive plans are made in advance. More conventional stage of warfare.
Speed and mobility are essential. Must have the ability to destroy a target and quickly move on to the next target.
Destroy everything belonging to the enemy that you cannot use.
All enemy businesses, factories, etc., should be destroyed or taken over.
Stay close to the enemy and engage in close combat.
Pockets of resistance should be bypassed by the main force and dealt with later by mop up forces that surround the enemy pocket and destroy them.
Possible military commanders and potential leaders and organizers among the enemy should be targeted for assassination.
Enemy vehicles are captured or commandeered and civilian vehicles are used for transportation.

Take fuel from gas stations or parked vehicles and keep moving.

Historical Examples:
FSLN forces capture Managua, the capital of Nicaragua in July of 1979
 
The 1968 Viet Cong Tet Offensive was actually a failed attempt at a popular uprising.
The French resistance uprising against German forces in Paris as the Allied forces advanced towards the city.
The Polish resistance uprising against German forces in Warsaw in 1944.




Quick strike guerrilla offensive such as an FLNC style "nuit bleu" or "Blue Night". This style of attack is more of an overnight Blitzkrieg. Multiple sites are attacked overnight.












Preemptive Strike (Conventional)
A surprise attack to prevent the enemy from launching a surprise attack on oneself or simply to attack the enemy before he can attack you. This is good to do during the enemy buildup of forces.



Preemptive Strike (Guerrilla)

Sympathizers in one nation attack an enemy during his buildup to invade another nation. Fire rockets, mortars, etc. at his staging areas and encampments. Use guerrilla tactics. If and when the enemy invades, the guerrillas continue to attack the enemy in the rear.

Examples:
08 OCT 2002- 2 U.S. marines are shot in Kuwait during a military exercise in preparation for the invasion of Iraq. One of the two marines later dies. The two gunmen that attacked them are martyred.

21 JAN 03- 2 more americans shot in Kuwait. 1 of them dies from wounds. Both were civilian contractors working for the U.S. military. Shot sitting in their SUV at a red light.

30 MAR 03- 13 U.S. soldiers are injured by an Arab contractor driving a truck in Kuwait. The driver purposely plowed into a crowd of soldiers at a camp PX.




Counter Attack







Strategic sabotage can paralyze entire armies.




Further Reading on Strategy:
The Art of War- Sun Tzu
The Book of Five Rings- Miyamoto Musashi





Guerrilla Warfare
Low Intensity Warfare

Strategy Used in Guerrilla War

“Our Strategy is one against ten. Our tactic is ten against one.”
-Mao Tse Tung

Mao's Three Stages of Guerrilla Warfare
1. Preparation and Organization. The establishment of guerrilla base areas.
2. Sabotage and Guerrilla Warfare phase.
3. Strategic Counter-Offensive. Conventional War phase including large unit and mobile warfare. The final phase places an emphasis on a popular uprising of the masses in conjunction with the liberation forces.

Must have a clear political objective.

Lack of numbers and technology can be made up for using special tactics, better knowledge of the land, deception and determination.

Harass and tie down the enemy and destroy the enemy's forces and supplies.

Fire off isolated shots, fire crackers, wooden clappers, etc. to harass the enemy and keep the enemy on edge

Do not attack strong positions

Do not fight an uphill battle.

Do not fight if the situation of the enemy is not clear.

Do not fight hard battles. If you are not one hundred percent certain of victory, do not fight.

Constant offensive action against enemy personnel and sensitive points, but only when the tactical advantage is on the side of the guerrillas.

In order to achieve a quick decision in battle, attack a moving enemy unit, not a stationary enemy. Concentrate a large force under cover and attack a smaller enemy unit along a route the enemy is sure to take.

Multiple guerrilla groups can be formed. These separate guerrilla groups have no real connection to one another other than a similar goal or agenda. If one group or cell is destroyed or captured, it does not effect the operations of the movement as a whole.


"Lure the enemy in deep."
In order to draw the enemy into a trap, or ambush, entice the enemy with something he wants. A strategic position, a decisive battle, a secret base, a guerrilla leader, sex, food, money, a downed pilot, sleep, the chance for fame and glory, etc., all could be used to entice the enemy into advancing using the Five Needs or the Five Weaknesses.



Protracted War
Patience is required while enduring protracted wars.
"Time works for us. Time will be our best strategist." -Truong Chinh


Resistance Movement


Revolutionary War
"Peoples War"

Political Strategy
Integrate political and military efforts.

The war should be waged on all fronts; diplomatically, ideologically, economically,
and militarily.

Total mobilization of the people by propaganda, motivational and organizational measures.

Intense indoctrination of both military and civilian personnel.

Political Action Among Enemy Military Forces
Subversion
Proselytizing
Propaganda to encourage desertion, defection, and to lower enemy morale. An example of this is to contribute to enemy deserters and draft dodgers.

Political Action Among the Enemy's Population
A total propaganda effort to sow discontent, defeatism, dissent, and disloyalty among the enemy population. This may involve the creation and/or manipulation of front groups and sympathizers. An example of this is to work among enemy media, activist, etc.

"Turn the imperialist war into a civil war!"
When an imperialist nation launches another war, the people of that imperialist nation are to rebel against the corrupt leadership and initiate a civil war.


Further Reading on Guerrilla Warfare:
On Guerrilla Warfare- Mao Zedong
Basic Tactics- Mao Zedong
150 Questions For A Guerrilla- General Alberto Bayo
Total Resistance- Major Hans von Dach
Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla- Carlos Marighella
Guerrilla Warfare- Ernesto Guevara








Very Low Intensity Warfare

Ninjutsu


Heiho (Hei ho)- Strategy and tactics

Few in number, ninja attempt to influence outside forces in order to get a desired result. Intricate plans are made to get the enemy to do precisely what you want him to do. Intrigue.

One of the main goals in ninja strategy and planning is to remain undetected.


A strategy using espionage, sabotage and assassination as the main means of defeating an enemy.


Espionage
Sabotage
Assassination
Ambush
Psychological Warfare





The Five Needs
Security
Sex
Wealth
Pride
Pleasure

The Five Weaknesses
Laziness
Anger
Fear
Sympathy
Vanity


The use of modern day weapons and equipment.
The use of traditional ninja weapons.
Improvised traditional ninja weapons.


Organization and Structure
Jonin- "High Ninja"

Chunin- "Middle Ninja"

Genin- "Lower Ninja"





Further Reading on Ninjutsu:
The Way of the Ninja: Secret techniques- Masaaki Hatsumi
The Ninja and Their Secret Fighting Art- Stephen K. Hayes
Ninjutsu: History and Tradition- Masaaki Hatsumi
Tiger Scroll of the Koga Ninja- Jay Sensei







Section Omitted










Leaderless Resistance

Lone Wolf

Like minded individuals or groups with no real leadership or command structure fighting against a common enemy.







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